Personal Journal writing, writing journal, and writing prompts

Personal Journal writing, writing journal, and writing prompts

Personal Journal writing, writing journal, and writing prompts 

Journal writing – Do you think advent of writing has had a major influence in making our world as it is now? If writing had not been invented what would our world be like? Reflect on it for a few minutes. Write your reflections here.

Procedural/Instructional Text

Journal writing – Procedure involves following steps: Title (purpose) Ingredients/Materials Steps/Method Title Ingredients/ materials Steps/ Method Tips

The procedural text tells the readers how to do or make something. The information is presented in logical sequence of events that are broken into steps.

Journal writing – A procedure is a sequence of steps in a particular order. It is also known as instructions or directions. The most common example of procedural text is a recipe.

Journal writing – There are three (3) types of procedural texts: Texts that explain how something works or how to use instructions or operation manual, for example, how to use a video game, a computer etc. Texts that instruct how to do a particular activity, for example, games, science experiments etc. Texts that explain how to make something, for example recipes (Wing, 1991).

It is the goal or outcome of the activity, for example; how to make banana muffin, how to make bakso, how to operate a video game, etc It is the list and amount of things and materials required.

It is the step-by-step description of how to complete the task.  It is the final comment or

Language features of procedural text: Let’s look at the noun phrase pattern. This is the pattern we follow when writing procedural text.

2 teaspoons 4 pieces 10 pieces 5 cups

brown soft fresh white

palm Japanese Indonesian Thai

sugar tofu chilies rice

Let’s look at adverbs in procedural text. Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. They tell us how, when, where and under what conditions something happens. Adverbs usually end in -ly but all adverbs do not end in -ly, for example: quite, really, wonderfully, beautifully etc.


Journal writing – You should fry the banana slices – You drill the holes in the wall – You should press the button – You should stir the sauce – When the class is over, walk towards the bus. – You should filter the solution – Add remaining vegetables to the


for 3 minutes till they turn golden brown. carefully so that the holes are of the same size. gently. vigorously, so that lumps do not form. quietly. carefully till the water is clear. slowly .

Let’s look at Action verbs pattern. Action verbs are used to give instructions to represent the processes involved in completing the task.

Action Verbs

Cut Put Wash Fold Twist Drill Squeeze Don’t cut Don’t put Don’t drill


the bananas into thin slices. the bananas on the plate. the vegetables before cutting them. the wrap slowly. the dough into small rings. holes in the plank. a little amount of glue. the apple slices too thin. cream on the fruits. too deep.

Let’s look at the temporal conjunction pattern. Temporal conjunctions are used to ensure that processes are placed in correct order


First, Then, After that, Finally,


take a slice of bread, spread some butter on it, fold the bread your bread is ready

Let’s look at the modal verb pattern. Modal verbs are used in instructions to lessen or heighten the degree of requirement in completing the task. – You should beat the egg vigorously. – You might add some chilies, if you like. – You could add some extra holes in the plank.


– Use Action verbs like cut, fold, twist, drill, squeeze, drill, remove etc. – Procedural text focuses on general people rather than individual person. For example: You should cut the roll into tiny circles rather than I should cut the roll in

Journal writing
Journal writing

to tiny circles. – Use of linking words or temporal conjunctions such as first, second, next, when, then, finally. – Give detailed information on the following: – How (cut it carefully with cookie cutter) – Where (start from the top) – When (after it has set) – Detailed factual description (shape, size, color, amount). – Number your steps. – Write each step on a new line. – Include visuals for each step.

Word Power

exist advent emerge evolve prominent alter imaginary significant crucial merge relevant \?g?z?st\ \?adv(?)nt\ \??m??d?\ \??v?lv\ \?pr?m?n?nt\ \???lt?\ \??mad??n(?)ri\ \s?g?n?f?k(?)nt\ \?kru??(?)l\ \m??d?\ \?r?l?v(?)nt\

To be alive, occur or be found in particular place or situation. Arrival of something notable. Become apparent or prominent. Develop gradually. Important, famous. Change in character or composition. Something that exists in imagination. Note-worthy or worthy of attention. Decisive and critical. Combine or blend to become one. Closely connected or appropriate to matter in hand.

Examples of Procedural Writing


Ingredients – 2 oranges – 2 teaspoons of sugar – pinch of cinnamon Materials – Handheld juicer – Sieve – Glass – Knife – Cutting board

Steps/Methods – First, wash the oranges and put them on a cutting board. – Then, cut the oranges into halves. – After that, prepare the handheld juicer and put the oranges on the juicer and squeeze them one by one. – Continue doing this till all oranges have been juiced. – If you want your juice without pulp use the sieve to take out all the pulp – Now, add 2 teaspoons of sugar and a pinch of  – Now, add 2 teaspoons of sugar and a pinch of cinnamon if you want and stir till the sugar and cinnamon has completely dissolved. – Finally, your orange juice is ready to be served.

Tips – You can add ice cubes to make it cold. – You can peel the rind of the orange and put it on the glass as decoration. – Orange juice can stay fresh for 2 days in the fridge. – Do not leave it outside.


You will need: – A packet of jasmine seeds. – A small pot – Loamy soil – Fertilizers – Water

– Mix the soil with fertilizer well to create a medium for planting the seeds. – Scatter seeds on the surface of the soil. – Cover the seeds with a 3mm layer of soil.

– Press the soil firmly, then spray with water to moisten the bed. – Place the pot in warm, sunny position (at least 25 C) for 10-14 days. – Seeds will germinate approximately in 10-14 days.

– Keep the soil moist but avoid over watering. – Watch for small black droppings and holes in leaves which indicates your jasmine has caterpillars.

Let’s Practice

1. Below are given ingredients for Indonesian chicken satay. Can you write a procedural text for Indonesian chicken satay in the graphic organizer.

Indonesian Chicken Satay Ingredients/equipment: 3 tablespoons (45ml) soya sauce 3 tablespoons tomato sauce 1 tablespoon (15ml) peanut oil 2 cloves garlic, peeled and crushed 1 pinch ground black pepper 1 pinch ground cumin 6 skinless, boneless chicken breast halves, cubed 1 tablespoon (15ml) vegetable oil ¼ cup grated onion, about half a medium onion 1 clove garlic, peeled and crushed 1 cup (250ml) water ½ cup (125g) chunky peanuts Picture 6.6 (Source: 2 tablespoons (30ml) soya sauce 2 tablespoons caster sugar 1 tablespoon (15ml) lemon juice, about one small lemon skewers Barbeque grill Coal

2. Read the procedure text carefully and answer the questions given below.


You will need: – 2 slices of bread – A slice of cheese – An oven toaster – A plate – A knife 1. First, switch on an oven toaster and heat it for 1 minute. 2. Second, take 2 slices of bread and place a slice of cheese between the slices of bread. 3. Third, place the slices in the oven for 5 minutes. 4. After 5 minutes check it. If the bread is slightly golden brown, take it out carefully. 5. Cut the cheese toast. 6. Put the cheese toast on a plate. 7. Your cheese toast is ready to be served Tips: – Make sure you wear oven mitts. – Be careful when you take the cheese toast out. – Let the cheese toast cool before eating. The cheese can burn your tongue.


Creative Writing Story of Technical Writing, Short stories, and Story writing

Creative Writing Story of Technical Writing, Short stories, and Story writing

Creative Writing Story of Technical Writing, Short stories, and Story writing

Creative Writing Story
Creative Writing Story

Creative Writing Story

Creative Writing Story – History of Writing Language was born at the same time as man was created. Language existed long before writing came into existence. The advent of writing can be said to have emerged when man started to settle down. The initial writing found was in form of pictures. Egyptians developed the most famous and well-known form of picture writing known as the hieroglyphics (Larkin, 1999). Early Writing Initially man used to express and record through signs and pictures on walls of caves and later on clay tablets.

Creative Writing Story – The Mesopotamians developed one of the earliest writing systems, they had specialist known as scribes. These scribes were the only ones who could write. Their writing system was essentially used to measure barley, which was considered the most important commodity at that time. (Larkin, 1999) Writing Systems As time passed and man progressed these signs became more sophisticated and instruments for writing were developed.

Creative Writing Story – Cuneiform script came into existence and it was used in different cities to record a variety of information such as temple activities, business and trade. Eventually it was also used to write stories, myths and personal letters. It is debated that writing systems were developed in four major civilizations: Indus valley in Ancient India, Chinese, Mesopotamian, and Egyptian independently but around the same time. (Daniels & Bright, 1996) As man evolved, so did writing.

Creative Writing Story – Greeks developed the earliest ways of writing which is quite similar to the modern writing system. They used to write with metal stylus on wax-coated tablets. The invention and use of ink by Chinese took writing to new heights. Advancement in technologies altered what was written and how it was produced. During the Golden age of Islam, Arabic script was prominently used everywhere and it became one of the world’s standard scripts. By the end of 16th century old Roman and Greek letters were transformed into twenty-six alphabets letters, as we know today.

Creative Writing Story – Writing in Education Formal education played a significant role in bringing the writing to masses. This changed the nature of writing and evolved into the form we know now. Writing is considered a very powerful learning tool and plays a very crucial role in our education. It helps us discover new information, ideas, evaluate our thoughts and opinions. Writing is broadly divided into fiction and non-fiction. Fiction is a kind of writing that deals with ideas or events that are imaginary or theoretical whereas non-fiction is a kind of writing that is based on facts and information. Major types of non-fiction literature are essays, journals, memoirs, technical documentation/writing, scientific papers, travel books, blue prints and user manuals.

Creative Writing Story – What is technical writing? Technical writing is a kind of non-fiction writing. It is used for technical communication and is often associated with help files, procedure and user manuals. One of the important uses of technical writing is step-by-step explanation of how to do things, for example assemble a machine, repair something, routine maintenance, recipe to make something. It focuses on simplifying something which is complex. It can be said that technical writing involves creating useful documents that can be clearly understood by the readers. Good technical writing presents useful information in a way that is easily understood by the users. The origin of technical writing can be traced back to Geoffrey Chaucer who wrote “ Treatise of Astrolabe”, the first technical writing in English Language. This treatise is considered the oldest work in English describing a complex scientific instrument. This document is admired for its clarity in explaining difficult concepts (North, 1988). Technical writing as a discipline came into existence around the World War 1 due to the growing need in technology-based documentation. In 1953, the society of technical writers and the association of technical writers and editors were set up to improve the practice of technical writing. Later these two organizations merged and formed Society of Technical Communication.

The golden age of technical writing started with invention of computers and the need for help files for the laymen (Alred, et al, 2006). Characteristics of good technical writing A well-written piece of technical writing presents information in a relevant, useful and accurate way, which is targeted towards a special audience. A good technical document requires the following techniques: – Clear, simple writing; – A thorough understanding of the procedure in all its technical details; – Ability to put yourself in the place of the reader, the person trying to use your instructions; – Ability to visualize the procedure in great detail and to capture that awareness on paper; – Finally, willingness to go that extra distance and test your instructions (Alred, et al, 2006). Conclusion: Lots of changes have taken place in the field of technical writing. Now there are specified writers called technical writers. Technical writing has its own categories. Technical writers work together with editors, graphic designers and illustrators, document specialists, content managers, instructional designers, trainers, and analysts to produce an amazing variety of deliverables, including: contracts, customer service scripts, design documents, FAQs, how-to-do videos, instructions, knowledge-based articles, policy documents, user manuals, training course materials, warning labels, help files, white papers, etc.

Creative Writing Story – Read the questions carefully. Note down your opinions and reactions to the questions. During the discussion with your teacher and classmates, offer your personal reaction and understanding of the text. 1. Do you think writing changed our society? How? Give reasons to support your answer. 2. “Need is the mother of invention.” Do you think this saying is applicable to the development of technical writing? Discuss how it is applicable and support your discussion with reasons. 3. Which is your favorite kind of writing? Why? Give reasons for your answer. 4. What do you think would have motivated the early man to record and draw on walls using signs and symbols? Discuss. 5. Discuss differences between different genres of writing like fiction and non-fiction? You may focus on: a. How are they different? b. How do they speak to different audiences?

Creative Writing Story – Kurikulum 2013 dirancang untuk menyongsong model pembelajaran Abad 21. Didalamnya terdapat pergeseran pembelajaran dari siswa diberi tahu menjadi siswa mencari tahu dari berbagai sumber belajar melampaui batas pendidik dan satuan pendidikan. Peran Bahasa Inggris dalam model pembelajaran seperti itu menjadi sangat sentral mengingat lebih banyak sumber belajar dalam Bahasa Inggris dibanding semua sumber belajar dalam semua bahasa lainnya digabungkan. Makin datarnya dunia dengan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi menyebabkan pergaulan tidak dapat lagi dibatasi oleh batas-batas negara. Kurikulum 2013 menyadari peran penting Bahasa Inggris tersebut dalam menyampaikan gagasan melebihi batas negara Indonesia serta untuk menyerap gagasan dari luar yang dapat dipergunakan untuk kemaslahatan bangsa dan negara. Dengan demikian kompetensi lulusan Pendidikan Menengah yang dirumuskan sebagai mampu menjadi cerminan bangsa yang berkontribusi aktif dalam pergaulan dan peradaban dunia dapat tercapai. Sejalan dengan peran di atas, pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris untuk Pendidikan Menengah Kelas XI yang disajikan dalam buku ini disusun untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbahasa. Penyajiannya adalah dengan menggunakan pendekatan pembelajaran berbasis teks, baik lisan maupun tulis, dengan menempatkan Bahasa Inggris sebagai wahana komunikasi. Pemahaman terhadap jenis, kaidah dan konteks suatu teks ditekankan sehingga memudahkan peserta didik menangkap makna yang tersurat dan tersirat dalam suatu teks; juga untuk menyajikan gagasan dalam bentuk teks yang mudah dipahami makna kandungannya dan diapresiasi keindahan pilihan rangkaian katanya. Sebagai bagian dari Kurikulum 2013 yang menekankan pentingnya keseimbangan kompetensi sikap, pengetahuan dan keterampilan, kemampuan berbahasa Inggris yang dituntut dibentuk melalui pembelajaran berkelanjutan: dimulai dengan meningkatkan kompetensi pengetahuan tentang jenis, kaidah dan konteks suatu teks, dilanjutkan dengan kompetensi keterampilan menyajikan suatu teks tulis dan lisan baik terencana maupun spontan dengan pelafalan dan intonasi yang tepat, dan bermuara pada pembentukan sikap kesantunan berbahasa dan sikap menghargai keindahan bahasa. Buku ini menjabarkan usaha minimal yang harus dilakukan siswa untuk mencapai kompetensi yang diharapkan. Sesuai dengan pendekatan yang digunakan dalam Kurikulum 2013, siswa diajak menjadi berani untuk mencari sumber belajar lain yang tersedia dan terbentang luas di sekitarnya. Peran guru dalam meningkatkan dan menyesuaikan daya serap siswa dengan ketersediaan kegiatan pada buku ini sangat penting. Guru dapat memperkayanya dengan kreasi dalam bentuk kegiatan-kegiatan lain yang sesuai dan relevan yang bersumber dari lingkungan sosial dan alam. Implementasi terbatas Kurikulum 2013 pada tahun ajaran 2013/2014 telah mendapatkan tanggapan yang sangat positif dan masukan yang sangat berharga. Pengalaman tersebut dipergunakan semaksimal mungkin dalam menyiapkan buku untuk implementasi menyeluruh pada tahun ajaran 2014/2015 dan seterusnya. Walaupun demikian, sebagai edisi pertama, buku ini sangat terbuka dan perlu terus dilakukan perbaikan dan penyempurnaan. Oleh karen itu, kami mengundang para pembaca memberikan kritik, saran dan masukan untuk perbaikan dan penyempurnaan pada edisi berikutnya. Atas kontribusi tersebut, kami ucapkan terima kasih. Mudahmudahan kita dapat memberikan yang terbaik bagi kemajuan dunia pendidikan dalam rangka mempersiapkan generasi seratus tahun Indonesia Merdeka (2045). Jakarta, Januari 2014 Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Mohammad Nuh

Writing, Speaking and Reflection

Writing, Speaking and Reflection

Pair Work
Read the following description about a tourist destination
carefully. The writer forgot to edit her draft. Can you find the
errors in the text and help her edit the text? Use the guiding
questions that follow to help you. If you go to Batu city in East
Java, do not forget to visit Cuban
Rondo. Cuban Rondo is a must-see
waterfall because of it spectacular
scenery. The first amazing natural
charm to enjoy is the huge greenish
rock. The gigantic rock and its dunns river falls
vegetation that surrounds the waterfal
soar high into the sky. The top of the
rock bends inward so that when we
stand close to the waterfal, we will feel
as if we were inside of a gigantic cave
or a bowl giant. The greatness of the
nature will make you feel very small
and price God The second scenery to
enjoy is the waterfall itself. from the
top of the soaring rock, huge amount
of water continuously falls down,
splash on the large black stones at
the bottom of the waterfall, and forms
a shallow small lake and stream. The
water in the lake and stream crystal clear and icy cold. The wind
that blow the falling water and the splash produce millions of tiny
droplets of water. The wind can blow your boat. The droplets covers
the small lake and visitors in mist. Yes, you will get wet. But you
can go to the mall. When the sunlight shine through the cold tiny
droplets, you will see rainbows on the earth, not in the sky, that
seems close enough to you the senery is breathtaking. End the trip
with something that can warm you up. In the rest area, you can buy
roasted sweet corns. If that is not enough, you can also buy drinks
hot delicious and meatball soup hot. When you go home, leave
nothing in the area but your footsteps and bring home only your memory unforgettabel about the beautiful Cuban Rondo Waterfall.

Pair work
Have you ever visited a waterfall or other natural
tourist objects? What is interesting or not interesting about
the place? Will you recommend that place to your friends?
Why? Take turns describing the places.

I Reflection
At the end of this chapter, ask yourself the
following questions to know how effective your learning
process is.
1. What have you learned from this chapter?
2. Can you do all the exercises here?
3. What is your plan to improve your ability in
describing places?
J Further Activities
Noun phrase (NP) is an important element in giving
people a lot of information. That is why it is important that
you learn to create noun phrases. To do that you will need to
read a lot of texts, such as science texts, that often use noun
phrases. Find a biology text and identify the noun phrases
used. Share what you have with your classmates